Understanding Nanomedicine:  An Introductory Textbook
By Rob Burgess, PhD
Copyright 2011. Pan Stanford Publishing.  All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 10 Review Question Answers

Following are selected answers to the review questions at the end of Chapter 10 in Understanding Nanomedicine:  An Introductory Textbook by Rob Burgess.

1. (1) Potential energy source, (2) Mechanism for converting potential energy to kinetic energy and (3) Ability to use kinetic energy for mobility and a therapeutic benefit

4. Their system is based on rotaxane, which is a mechanically-interlocked molecular compound consisting of a dumbbell-shaped molecule threaded through a ring. It is a linear molecular motor powered exclusively by visible light and exhibits autonomy by relying on intramolecular processes. The motor consists of an electron donor macrocycle ring enclosed around a dumbbell-shaped dual electron acceptor. The overall length of the system is ~5nm and the distance between the two electron acceptor sites is ~1.3nm. A photosensitizer drives electron transfer upon exposure of the system to visible light and powers rotaxane shuttling. Three features include: (1) Powered by visible light; (2) Operates autonomously; (3) No waste product generation.

7. The casing is composed of a silicon shell terminated by sulfur. Each of nine separate planet gears is attached to the planet carrier by a carbon-carbon single bond. The gear would convert shaft power from one angular frequency to another.

10. Atom relay

13. Leonard Adelman used fragments of DNA to compute the solution to a complex graph theory known as a Hamiltonian path problem. Adleman's method utilized the unique identities of the molecular subunits to represent the vertices of a network. Combinations of these sequences formed randomly during large-scale parallel reactions in a test tube and thus represented random paths through the network or graph. Adleman was able to subsequently extract the correct answer to the graph theory from the plethora of random paths represented by the final product DNA strands.

16. Soluble thin films degrade in the presence of plasma water to expose a sticky mesh complementary to blood group antigens present on the surfaces of RBCs. This allows for trapping of the red blood cells to create a netting composed of both cells and mesh to halt bleeding.

19. The plasmonic nanobubbles combine optical scattering for diagnosis with intracellular mechanical damage of target cells for therapy.   The system works by clustering gold nanoparticles around molecular targets within cancer cells followed by exposure to a laser pulse, which results in light scattering by small PNBs and mechanical damage to cells via expansion and contraction of larger PNBs. Thus simultaneous detection and eradication of cancer cells is accomplished.

22. The grooves are designed to provide pathways for the growth of regenerative axons. They also limit the number of neuronal fibers that come into contact with the longitudinal electrodes.