Understanding Nanomedicine:  An Introductory Textbook
By Rob Burgess, PhD
Copyright 2011. Pan Stanford Publishing.  All Rights Reserved.

Chapter 4 Review Question Answers

Following are seleced answers to the review questions at the end of Chapter 4 in Understanding Nanomedicine:  An Introductory Textbook by Rob Burgess.

1. Neurodegeneration/Nanoscaffolds and Nanomatrices; Blood-Brain Barrier Limitations/Targeted Nanoparticles and Liposomes; Preventative CNS Care/Nanoparticle-based Oxides and Fullerenes



4.  Through P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a membrane-associated protein expressed in the capillary endothelial cells.  P-gp's role is to act as an efflux pump to prevent entry of foreign substances into the brain cavity.



7.  The reticuloendothelial system (RES), which is a component of the immune system including monocytes and macrophages, is capable of clearing conventionally designed liposomes from the circulation.



10.  1.  The internal core to which branches are attached,  2.  The outer shell of the branches surrounding this internal core and 3.  The surface formed by branch termini which is multi-valent, having several sites of attachment, in nature.  It is during dendrimer synthesis that various solutes, such as those containing therapeutics, can be trapped within the interior cavities of the dendrimer. 




13.  Oxidative stress is defined as a condition of increased oxidant production in cells characterized by the release of free radicals and resulting in cellular degeneration.  Oxidative stress plays a role in the development and progression of AD by promoting the accumulation of high levels of redox-active metals, particularly iron, contributing to this manifestation.   Researchers are now creating NP delivery platforms that provide metal chelators, which are agents that bind metal ions and render them neutral and unavailable, deep within the brain, eventually allowing for metal removal from the brain via the circulatory system. 



16.  Caged fullerene oxides.  They inhibit glutamate receptor activity, most likely through free radical scavenging, and result in lower calcium uptake by neurons and thus reduced glutamate-induced neurotoxicity via diminished intracellular calcium buildup.