Understanding Nanomedicine:  An Introductory Textbook
By Rob Burgess, PhD
Copyright 2011. Pan Stanford Publishing.  All Rights Reserved.

Chapter 6 Review Question Answers

Following are selected answers to the review questions at the end of Chapter 6 in Understanding Nanomedicine:  An Introductory Textbook by Rob Burgess.

1.  Cancer cells, Fibroblasts, Tumor cells, Embryonic cells, Embryonic stem cells, Adult stem cells, Adult immortalized cells, Primary cells (direct explants), Hybridomas



4.  This is ~1000-10,000-fold greater than the size of the typical biomolecule such as a growth factor, for example.  Biomolecular diffusion is the result and thus cells in this system often lack the access to nutrients and other biomolecules that would be easily accessible in situ (in a natural biological environment). 



7.  It is a system that utilizes PLLA nanoscaffolds combined with PLGA nanospheres seeded with recombinant human growth factor BMP-7 (bone morphogenetic protein 7).  PLGA nanospheres coated with rhBMP-7 were seeded onto PLLA nanoscaffolds and the kinetics of growth factor release measured.  It was observed that rhBMP-7 release could be temporally controlled by adjusting the chemical and degradation properties of the PLGA nanospheres.  Controlled release of rhBMP-7 was shown to promote cell culture and induce bone formation.



10.  They developed type I collagen nanofibers by electrospinning techniques and examined mesenchymal stem cell motility, morphology, growth, adhesion and osteogenic differentiation capabilities.  Cells appeared to have a polygonal and flattened morphology and exhibited higher viability rates than on standard tissue culture plates.   Differentiation was characterized via single cell RT-PCR of various marker genes to examine expression levels.  Higher levels of the genes osteocalcin, osteonectin and osteopontin were observed at the single cell level on the nanofibers as compared to controls.



13.  It is the heterogeneous aspect of the systems which often provides and combines the advantages of using two or more different matrix components.



16.  1.  Interweaving of different nanofiber sizes to promote cellular infiltration; 2.  Laser ablation techniques for the introduction of "grooves" within nanofiber matrices to allow for avenues of cellularization internal to the matrix.    



19.  One example is a magnetic force applied to magnetic cationic liposomes (MCLs) to construct a 3D co-culture system.