Understanding Nanomedicine:  An Introductory Textbook
By Rob Burgess, PhD
Copyright 2011. Pan Stanford Publishing.  All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 5 Review Question Answers

Following are selected answers to the review questions at the end of Chapter 5 in Understanding Nanomedicine:  An Introductory Textbook by Rob Burgess.

1.  Pins, rods and screws for bone repair and in some cases joint replacement, electrical, such as artificial pacemakers, and biological, for example bio-materials surgically implanted to replace or repair damaged tissues and/or internal organs, skin replacement and grafting of bio-materials.



4.  Higher surface areas, higher surface roughness, increased surface defects (including grain boundaries), altered electron distributions.



7.  It bears a striking resemblance to the mineralized structure of bone and has been shown to have high osteoconductivity, which is to promote bone formation proximal to an implant. 



10.  The apoptotic events are the result of caspase activation.  Caspases are a family of cysteine protease enzymes which play crucial roles in the activation of apoptosis, in necrosis and inflammation. 



13.  The mechanism of silver toxicity on biological foreign invaders is based upon the bioactivity of silver ions (Ag+) on enzymatic function.  Silver ions bind various enzymes within a host bacterial, fungus or virally-infected cell, inhibit their function and thus prevent such critical processes and oxygen uptake/metabolism or DNA synthesis.



16.  The unique features include an adjustable trap customizable for the size of the worms and system-integrated feeding modules that allow for the long-term follow-up study of axotomized worms post-nanosurgery.  A two-layer microfluidic approach was used with top-layer pressurization after worm loading to immobilize each specimen.  After neuroaxotomy the pressure is released and the worms are released into a feeding chamber for further study.