Understanding Nanomedicine:  An Introductory Textbook
By Rob Burgess, PhD
Copyright 2011. Pan Stanford Publishing.  All Rights Reserved.

Chapter 9 Review Question Answers

Following are selected answers to the review questions at the end of Chapter 9 in Understanding Nanomedicine:  An Introductory Textbook by Rob Burgess.

1. (1) Advance a world-class nanotechnology research and development (R&D) program; (2) Foster the transfer of new technologies into products for commercial and public benefit; (3) Develop and sustain educational resources, a skilled workforce, and the supporting infrastructure and tools to advance nanotechnology; (4) Support responsible development of nanotechnology.



4. (1) Precision microassembly for the development of nanomaterial composites for biomedical implants and 3D Microsystems for miniature instrumentation; (2) Development of a DNA sequencing platform for obtaining the first entire human genome sequence for $100 USD


7. (1) The development and evaluation of new nanotechnologies for health care; (2) The facilitation of commercialization and testing in patients; (3) The education of a new workforce and the public at large



10. Regenerative Medicine and Nanomedicine Initiative (RMNI)



13. To support trans-national collaborations of academia, clinical/public health communities and small to medium-sized companies for nanomedicine-related research and technology development.



16. (1) Establish and standardize an analytical cascade for nanomaterial characterization; (2) Facilitate the clinical development and regulatory review of nanomaterials for cancer clinical trials; (3) Identify and characterize critical parameters related to nanomaterials' absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity profiles of nanomaterials using animal models; (4) Examine the biological and functional characteristics of multi-component/combinatorial aspects of nanoscaled therapeutic, molecular and clinical diagnostics, and detection platforms; (5) Engage and facilitate academic and industrial-based knowledge sharing of nanomaterial performance data and behavior resulting from pre-clinical testing (i.e. physical characterization, in vitro testing, and in vivo pharmaco- and toxicokinetics); (6) Interface with other nanotechnology efforts



19. Class 977's purpose is to provide a cross-reference for examiners and others to search prior art. Before the establishment of Class 977, examiners relied solely on keyword searches to find relevant information in patent applications and issued patents.


22. (1) Nanoparticles and nanotubes should be treated as hazardous materials; (2) Nanoparticles and nanotubes should be treated as new substances under existing Notification of New Substances (NONS) regulations; (3) The use of nanoparticles in environmental applications be prohibited until further research can be conducted on their safety; (4) All nanoparticle ingredients in food undergo a full safety assessment; (5) All nanoparticle ingredients in food should be listed on the label



25. An independent review was conducted by the Centre for Regulatory Studies at Victoria, Australia's Monash University titled "A Review of Possible Impacts of Nanotechnology on Australia's Regulatory Framework" in mid-2008.



28. In July of 2008 the Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials formally recommended a priority list of fourteen manufactured nanomaterials that should be the focus of further investigation and listed 60 endpoints for the full characterization of these materials.